Web browsers have had one of the most public and interesting competitive lives of any software.
The very first web browser was the WorldWideWeb (not to be confused with the Web in general), created by Tim Berners-Lee and released to the publlc in 1991. It had a graphical user interface, but it did not display web pages with images embedded in them.
The first browser that could display images alongside text was known as Mosaic, and it was the web browser that popularized Web usage. In 1994, Marc Andreessen and a few of the original Mosaic developers banded together to start Netscape along with Jim Clark, a well known Silicon Valley entrepreneur. The early days of commercial browser development were marked by high energy and many innovations that continued to expand and improve the kinds of information the internet could provide. Every week it seemed that new sites popped up and new features appeared in browsers. A Wired Magazine article (http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/2.10/mosaic.html) captured some of the excitement from those early days when browsers and the web were starting to emerge and spread.
However, while Mosaic and then Netscape Navigator were first to enter the game, they failed to corner the market. After a relatively short and aggressive "browser war," Microsoft's Internet Explorer (IE) took the lead. Through spending over $100 million on the development and promotion of IE along with aggressive business practices, Microsoft was able to capture around 96% market share of all browsers in use. Some of the business practices Microsoft engaged in during the "browser war" were later determined to be anti-trust violations (http://www.usdoj.gov/atr/cases/ms_index.htm). With control of the market and no perceived business case for improving the browser, Microsoft began scaling back development in 2002 and 2003. In 2003, it announced there would be no more standalone versions of Internet Explorer (http://www.usdoj.gov/atr/cases/ms_index.htm).
With Microsoft out of the game, Netscape in decline, and many websites using pop-ups and untargeted advertising schemes, some consider 2001-2004 as a dark age of innovation and improvements for browsers and the web.
A new chapter was added to this story with the debut of Firefox. Firefox is a distant descendant of Mosaic and Netscape. In 1998, Netscape set up the Mozilla Project and made its browser code freely available as an experimental strategy to gain a competitive advantage against Microsoft. This allowed programmers around the world to study the Mozilla code and follow its development.
In 2003, the Mozilla Foundation was created as an independent organization, and in 2004, Firefox 1.0 was released. Since then the number of users has grown steadily. As of 2009, Firefox had approximately 23% of worldwide market share, with more than 300 million of the 1.2 billion Internet users around the world using Firefox as their web browser.
In response to Firefox, Microsoft changed its plans, restarted its browser development, and released IE9 in March 2011. In addition, Apple introduced its own web browser, Safari, in 2003, which has since been included in all Apple computers as the default browser. The rise of Firefox, and the returning focus on web browser development and competition, has led internauts to unofficially announce the "second browser war."
Google is the latest entrant into the web browser market, releasing Chrome for the Windows operating system in 2008. An open-sourced version of Chrome, called Chromium, was also released. Chromium allowed developers access to the browser's source code in order to convert Chrome for use on Apple Mac OS X and Linux operating systems. From this work, versions of Google Chrome for Mac OS X and Linux were released in 2009.
As of this writing (April 2011), Internet Explorer is still the most widely used web browser. However, it is leading by a slight and diminishing margin. Firefox follows IE in browser market share, while the less-used Chrome and Safari are both continually increasing in popularity.
When Google released the Chrome web browser in 2008, it also released its source code to the public through the Chromium project. The code was issued under the BSD (Berkeley Software Distribution) license, which meant that the source code for Chromium may be freely used, copied, modified, and distributed for use in other programs.
The goal of the Chromium project is to improve web browser technology, which leads to a better web user experience for everyone. Chromium is designed to load web pages quickly via a clean, minimal, tabbed interface free of extraneous applications. By openly releasing source code through the Chromium project, Google facilitates the sharing of innovative codes between Chromium and other open source programs, improving the performance, security, and reliability of web applications in general. Through the Chromium project, the open source community can find ways to make Chromium and Chrome run even faster, contribute to the development of web browser technology, and begin to pioneer the next generation of web applications.
Since Chromium is the open source version of Google Chrome, the two web browsers share similar functions and features. In fact, their user interfaces appear to be virtually identical. However, there are some noteworthy differences between Chromium and Chrome, as outlined in the following table.
|Integrated Flash player
||Adobe Flash Player
|Automatic software updating
|Installation licensing agreement
|Collection and delivery of usage statistics and browser crash reports
This manual was written from January to April 2011. It was primarily written by Edward Cheung, who was given the framework and scope of the project by Scott Nesbitt. Scott also contributed to the writing and the editing of the document. Additional editing was done by Mark Hancock.
In addition, certain chapters contain information that was reused or adapted from the following sources:
Note: The following steps are specific to Windows 7 Professional. They should work with earlier versions of Windows as well.
Since Chromium is an ongoing open source project, you will not find an official Chromium browser download page. Instead, in order to install Chromium, visit the web page where developers post the latest hourly builds, or code updates, of Chromium for download.
To install Chromium on Windows, do the following steps:
After the file mini_installer.exe has finished downloading, double click the file to open it.
The Chromium browser should start up. You should also find shortcuts to the program on your desktop and under the Start Menu in the Windows taskbar.
Note: The following steps are specific to Mac OS X 10.6. They should work with earlier versions of Mac OS as well.
Since Chromium is an ongoing open source project, you will not find an official Chromium browser download page. Instead,in order to install Chromium, visit the web page where developers post the latest hourly builds, or code updates, of Chromium for download.
To download and install Chromium, do the following:
To open Chromium for the first time, do the following:
You should see the Chromium application icon.
After you make your selection, Chromium opens.
There are two procedures for installing Chromium on Ubuntu: The first method involves the Ubuntu Software Center or installing Chromium from a Personal Package Archive. Both of these steps are described below:
If you're using Ubuntu 10.04 or newer, the easiest way to install Chromium is through the Ubuntu Software Center.
To install Chromium from the Ubuntu Software Center, do the following:
You can find the shortcut to start Chromium in the Internet option under the Applications menu:
If you're using an earlier version of Ubuntu, or just want to stay on the cutting edge of Chromium, you can install it from a Personal Package Archive (PPA). A PPA is a special repository for Ubuntu software that's separate from ones you would normally use either with the Ubuntu Software Center or Synaptic Package Manager. A PPA contains more frequent updates to software - updates which are often created nightly.
Remember that the software that you get from a PPA is 'cutting edge.' It may be buggy or unstable. Use it at your own risk.
To install Chromium from a PPA, do the following:
deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/chromium-daily/beta/ubuntu maverick main
deb-src http://ppa.launchpad.net/chromium-daily/beta/ubuntu maverick main
Ubuntu is not the only Linux distribution out there. You might be able to install Chromium on any Linux distribution using that distribution's package manager. For example, use YaST in OpenSUSE or yum in Fedora.
But, if your distribution's package manager doesn't include Chromium, you can visit the index page where developers post the latest hourly builds, or code updates of Chromium for download.
To install Chromium, do the following:
$ cp -a directory/filename /usr/local
$ cd /usr/local $ tar -xjvf filename.tar.bz2
$ rm filename
$ ln -s ../../usr/local/chrome-linux/chrome /usr/bin/chrome
Unlike Google Chrome, which has an automatic software update included, Chromium does not update itself or prompt the user to install an update. Since it is an ongoing open source project, keeping Chromium updated means downloading the hourly builds or snapshots from the Chromium snapshots page, where the latest updates for Chromium are available for download.
In Ubuntu, Chromium (like other pieces of software that are installed on your computer) will update automatically when a new version is available. Updates are controlled by an application called Update Manager.
Depending on how you've configured Update Manager, it will check for updates at the following intervals:
When Update Manager finds updated software, it will automatically launch. You can also launch Update Manager by selecting System > Administration > Update Manager. If you manually launch Update Manager, you'll need to click the Check button for Update Manager to check for new versions of software.
Click the Install Updates button and, when prompted, type the password that you use to log into Ubuntu and then click OK.
Note: The following steps are specific to Windows 7 Professional. They should work with earlier versions of Windows.
To remove Chromium through the All Programs list, do the following:
To remove Chromium using the Control Panel, do the following:
To clear your computer of Chromium bookmarks, browsing history, and cookies, do the following:
Note: The following steps are specific to Mac OS X 10.6. They should work with earlier versions of Mac OS.
To remove Chromium, do the following:
If you've created any aliases for Chromium, move them to Trash as well.
There are two procedures for removing Chromium on Ubuntu. Which one you use will depend on whether you installed Chromium using the Ubuntu Software Center or from a Personal Package Archive. We take a look at both below:
If you're using Ubuntu 10.04 or newer, the easiest way to remove Chromium is through the Ubuntu Software Center.
To remove Chromium with the Ubuntu Software Center, do the following:
If you installed Chromium using a Personal Package Archive, you can remove it using Synaptic Package Manager. Here's how:
If you installed Chromium on a Linux distribution other than Ubuntu, using that distribution's package manager, you can remove Chromium from your system using the package manager. If, however, you installed Chromium from a zip archive, you'll need to manually remove it from your system. Here's how:
$ cd /usr/local
$ rm -rf chrome-linux
||Allows the user to browse the internet.
||Creates a new tab for browsing in multiple tabs.
||Omnibox (address and search bar)
||Allows the user to visit a website by typing in a URL or a set of search keywords.
|4||Add Bookmark button
||Adds the current web page as a bookmark.
||Accesses additional Chromium functions and the settings to configure the browser.
|6||Back and Forward buttons; Reload/Stop button
||Navigate to previously visited web pages; refreshes or stops the loading of the current page.
|7||Bookmarks Bar (hidden by default)
||Displays added bookmarks.
To start browsing the Internet with Chromium, type the URL of the website you wish to visit into the Omnibox, or type keywords into the Omnibox to search for web pages that contain the information you're looking for.
While typing the URL into the Omnibox, Chromium displays suggested web addresses based on your browsing history and bookmarks. This saves you the time and effort of remembering and typing out an entire URL.
If one of the suggested web addresses matches what you're looking for, use your mouse or the arrow keys on your keyboard to choose it, then mouse click or press Enter on your keyboard to select it and navigate to the suggested web page.
Alternatively, if the suggested web addresses are not what you're looking for, continue typing the entire URL, and press Enter on your keyboard to visit the page.
If you don't know or remember the URL of the website you wish to visit, or if you would like to perform a web search for information, type in the name of the website or some search keywords into the Omnibox.
Much like typing the URL into the Omnibox, Chromium will display suggested web searches and addresses as you type in keywords, based on keyword relevancy, your browsing history, and your bookmarks. If one of the suggestions matches what you're looking for, use your mouse or the arrow keys on your keyboard to choose it, and mouse click or press Enter on your keyboard to select it.
To open a new tab for browsing multiple web pages at once, click on the New Tab button located to the right of the current tab header, or press Control (Windows and Linux OSs) or Command (Mac OS) + T on your keyboard.
To return to a web page that you previously visited, click the Back button.
If you have visited several pages during your browsing session, click and hold the Back button to see a list of previously visited web pages. While holding down the mouse button, move the mouse to choose from your previously visited web pages, and release the mouse button to visit the specified page.
Once you've used the Back button to visit a web page, the Forward button becomes active. It allows you to return to the web page you were browsing before you pressed the Back button.
Similar to the Back button, if you have visited several pages during your browsing session, click and hold the Forward button to see a list of previously-visited web pages. While holding down the mouse button, move the mouse to choose from your previously visited web pages, and release the mouse button to visit a page.
Chromium remembers the sites and pages that you visited within the previous 10 weeks. If you would like to see your web page browsing history, do one of the following:
You can search through your browsing history by typing keywords or web page titles in the search field.
Also, by clicking Edit items..., you can remove certain pages from your browsing history by clicking the option box beside a page and then clicking Remove selected items.
The Clear all browsing data... button opens a menu that allows you to remove other types of browser-related history, such as download history, cache, and cookies.
Finally, once you are done editing your browsing history, click Done removing items.
In Chromium, the Stop button and the Reload button are combined. You see the Reload button when Chromium has finished loading a web page.
The button changes into the Stop button when Chromium is loading a web page, to allow you to stop a slow-loading page or the loading of a faulty web page.
Bookmarks (also called Favorites in some browsers) are links to web pages. By saving bookmarks in Chromium, you can easily revisit pages without having to remember the address or search for them again, much like using bookmarks in a book.
To bookmark a page, do the following:
Alternatively, press the keyboard shortcut Control or Command + D to bookmark a web page.
If you'd like to rename the bookmark or save it in another folder, click on the Edit... button.
Type the new name of the bookmark in the Name field to rename the bookmark. Click on New folder to create a new folder for the bookmark. Once you are finished, click OK.
To find your bookmarks, use the Bookmarks Bar or the Bookmark Manager.
The Bookmarks Bar is located below the Omnibox and displays the bookmarks you've added to the default Bookmarks Bar folder.
To show the Bookmarks Bar, click on the Wrench icon, choose Tools, and select Always Show Bookmarks Bar. You can also press the keyboard command Shift + Control (or Command) + B to show the bar.
By default, the Bookmarks Bar is hidden from view, to simplify Chromium's interface.
You can drag and drop the bookmarks in the Bookmarks Bar to rearrange them, including the bookmarks filed under the >> button.
You can also drag the icon just to the left of the current URL in the Omnibox down to the Bookmarks Bar to quickly add a bookmark.
The Bookmark Manager allows you to view all the bookmarks you've added into the default Chromium bookmark folders (Bookmarks Bar and Other Bookmarks), as well as those added into the folders you've created.
To access the Bookmark Manager, click on the Wrench icon and select Bookmark Manager in the menu.
While you can use the Bookmarks Bar to manage your bookmarks, the Bookmark Manager is a better-organized and more user-friendly way to manage the bookmarks you've added.
To access the Bookmark Manager, click on the Wrench icon and select Bookmark Manager.
You can view all your bookmarks and the folders that contain them via the index on the left side of the page.
To move and reorder bookmarks and folders, drag and drop them to the desired location.
At the top of the page, you can search for a bookmark by typing keywords into the search field.
By clicking on the Organize menu, you can also do the following:
Also, if you right-click on a bookmark or a folder, you can perform many of the same actions as in the Organize menu, in addition to opening bookmarks in new tabs, in a new window, or in an Incognito window.
Synchronizing your bookmarks saves them to your Google Account. By doing this, you can access and edit them on any computer by logging into your Google Account. Along with synchronizing extensions, apps, themes, and browser preferences, bookmark synchronization gives you the same browsing experience at work, at home, or anywhere else you're using a computer connected to the Internet.
To sync your bookmarks, do the following:
To disable bookmark synchronization, do the following:
If you would like to configure Chromium, click on the Wrench icon and select Options (Windows OS) or Preferences (Mac and Linux OSs).
The Options/Preferences menu is organized into three tabs that are displayed on the left side of the page: Basics, Personal Stuff, and Under the Hood.
The Basics tab allows you to configure the following:
The Personal Stuff tab allows you to configure the following:
The Under the Hood tab allows you to configure the following:
For more information on the Options/Preferences menu, visit this Google Chrome Help web page: http://www.google.com/support/chrome/bin/answer.py?hl=en&answer=1183665.
To make Chromium your default browser, do the following:
You can configure Chromium's startup and home page settings in the Basics tab in the Options (Windows OS) or Preferences (Mac and Linux OSs) menu.
Using the option buttons in the On Startup section, you can set Chromium to open the home page when you start up the browser, or to return to the pages that were open when the browser was previously closed, or to open specific pages. The latter option requires you to enter the URL(s) of the specific web page(s) you'd like to see on startup.
Using the option buttons in the Home page section, you can set Chromium to use the New Tab page (which displays installed apps, most visited pages, and recently closed pages) as the home page, or to use a specific web page. To use the latter option, enter the URL of the web page that you'd like to use -- for example, http://booki.flossmanuals.net.
In the Toolbar section, click on the box beside Show Home button to add a shortcut icon to your home page. The Home button is located to the left of the Omnibox.
The search engine you choose to use for Chromium affects the search results you get when you type keywords into the Omnibox.
To select the search engine you'd like to use, do the following:
If you'd like to use additional search engines that are not included in Chromium, do the following:
To find the URL of the search engine you'd like to use, do a search on the web page of that search engine. At the search results page, copy the URL of the web page, and replace the query keywords in the URL with %s.
If you'd like to speed up your web browsing and searches, click on the box beside Enable Instant for faster searching and browsing in the Search section. Not only does Chromium guess which web page you'd like to visit while you type keywords or an URL into the Omnibox, it also loads that web page before you finish typing.
If you are wary of Chromium tracking your usage data and browsing history, there are several things you can do to control what information does and doesn't get recorded.
To change Chromium's privacy settings, do the following:
For more information on the individual parameters in the Privacy section, visit Google Chrome Help's Privacy and security settings page: http://www.google.com/support/chrome/bin/topic.py?hl=en&topic=14666.
Chromium's Incognito mode doesn't record your browsing and download history, and cookies are deleted once you close all open Incognito windows. However, bookmarks and general settings are still saved.
For more information on Incognito mode, consult the chapter "Using the Incognito Window" in the Other Features and Functions section of this manual.
When you install Chromium, a unique user ID is assigned to your computer to create individual user profiles of a user's actions (such as browsing and download history, and cookies) while using Chromium.
If this is a privacy concern for you, consider downloading one of the following tools to delete this unique ID from your computer:
To open a new browsing tab, either click on the New Tab button to the right of the header of the latest tab to be opened, or press Control (Windows or Linux OSs) / Command (Mac OS) + T on your keyboard.
To open a hyperlink in a new tab, right click on it and select Open Link in New Tab. Alternatively, press Control (Windows or Linux OSs) or Command (Mac OS) + mouse click on a hyperlink to open it in a new tab.
If you'd like Chromium to switch to the new tab as you open the hyperlink, press Shift + Control + mouse click (Windows or Linux OSs) or Shift + Command + mouse click (Mac OS) on a hyperlink.
Also, if you'd like to load the current web page in a new tab, right-click on the tab header and select Duplicate.
To reorder your browser tabs, click and drag a tab header to the left or right.
You can also drag a tab away from the current window to create a new window. You can then drag it back to the previous window if you wish.
To close a tab, press the x button on the right side of the tab header. Alternatively, press Control (Windows and Linux OSs) or Command (Mac OS) + W on your keyboard to close a tab.
If you'd like to reopen a closed tab, do one of the following steps:
When a web page crashes or doesn't load properly, it may immobilize the browsing tab used to view it. To kill this tab, do one of the following:
Find the tab that has crashed, and click on End process.
When you download a file from the Internet using Chromium, the Download bar appears along the bottom of the browser.
Files that are being downloaded appear as rectangular buttons on the Download bar. Click on the right side of a button to open a menu that allows you to open the file when it is finished downloading; to pause, resume, or cancel the download; and to show the location where the file is saved on your computer.
When you are done with the Download bar, press the x button on the right side of the bar to close it.
You can also view all of your downloads, both files in the process of downloading and files that have finished downloading, in the Downloads tab. To access the Downloads tab, do one of the following:
The Downloads tab allows you to pause, resume, or cancel an ongoing download, and to show where the file is saved on your computer. During a download, the tab also shows the size of the file and the estimated time remaining in the download.
If you'd like to download a file that can open in your browser (a .pdf or a .mp3 file, for example), but you'd rather not open it immediately after clicking on the download link, right-click on the link and select Save Link As.
Chromium asks you to name the file and to select where you'd like to save the file on your computer.
To copy and paste text from a web page, do the following:
Alternatively, you can right-click your mouse and select Copy from the pop-up menu.
Or, you can click on the Wrench icon and select Copy in the Edit section.
Alternatively, you can right-click your mouse and select Paste from the pop-up menu.
If you're pasting the text in a Chromium tab or window, you can also click on the Wrench icon and select Paste in the Edit section.
To copy a link or an image link, right-click on the link or image and select Copy Link Address for a link, or select Copy Image URL for an image. You can then paste the URL into the Omnibox of another tab.
To save a web page, click on the Wrench icon and select Save page as, or right-click on a web page (away from links and images) and select Save as.
In the Save As pop-up window that appears, choose where you'd like to save the web page on your computer. Also, choose whether you'd like to save the page as one of the following:
To save an image from a web page, right-click on it and select Save Image As...
Chromium asks you where you'd like to save the image on your computer. Choose the desired folder and click on Save to save the image.
To print a web page, do one of the following:
A dialog box opens to allow you to adjust your printer settings.
Note that certain types of web pages or files, like an email inbox or a PDF file, have their own print commands on the web page or file itself.
Viewing the source code of a web page is useful if you come across a page with a design and layout that you'd like to implement in your own website or blog.
To view the source code of a web page, do one of the following:
To view security information about a web page, such as the identity of the page and the security of your connection to it, right-click on a page (away from images and links) and select View Page Info.
Every web page is made up of a number of elements. These include HTML tags, style directives, images, scripts, and more.
Inspecting the elements on a web page enables you to view coding errors on a page. When you've isolated the error, you can go back to your source file and edit the page's code. The element inspector in Chromium also monitors the amount of time it takes for each element on a web page to load, which is useful to gauge a website's level of performance.
To inspect the elements on a web page, right-click on the page (away from images and links) and select Inspect Element.
Extensions are additional features that you can download for use with Chromium. They provide a number of functions that extend the capabilities of Chromium. Like what? Like Gmail inbox alerts, automatically mapping addresses, verifying the security information of a website, and much more.
You can find extensions for Chromium at the Google Chrome Extensions Gallery: https://chrome.google.com/extensions
If you're using Chromium in North America, you can also visit the Chrome Web Store at https://chrome.google.com/webstore and look for extensions in the Extensions section.
On both sites, extensions are organized in categories like Featured, Popular, and Top Rated. They're also organized by function -- for example, Education, Productivity, and Utilities. On both sites, you can search for extensions using keywords.
To install an extension, click on the Install button on the description page of an extension. After Chromium finishes downloading the extension, it asks whether you'd like to install the extension. Click on Install to start using the extension.
In the Chrome Web Store, the description page of an extension also tells you what types of data the extension can access on your computer. Also, in both the Web Store and the Google Chrome Extensions Gallery, this privacy info pops up when Chromium asks you to confirm the installation of an extension.
The Extensions Toolbar is located to the right of the Omnibox. The extensions you install for Chromium appear here as buttons. As you add extensions, the Omnibox shortens to accommodate more extension buttons.
To adjust the length of the Omnibox and to control how many extension buttons are shown, place the mouse cursor to the right border of the Omnibox, then click and drag it.
You can also reorder the extensions buttons by clicking and dragging them.
If you right-click on an extension button, a pop-up menu appears that allows you to do the following:
The Extensions Manager is a dedicated browser tab for the extensions you've installed. It allows you to do the following:
To access the Extensions Manager, click on the Wrench icon, select Tools, then click on Extensions.
To temporarily disable an extension, do one of the following:
Once disabled, an extension is removed from the Extensions Toolbar. You can still access a disabled extension in the Extensions Manager.
To uninstall an extension, do one of the following:
Chromium asks you to confirm the uninstalling of the extension. Click Uninstall to remove the extension.
Here are some recommended extensions for use with Chromium:
http://bit.ly/mAGyJ1 -- this extension removes the ads from any web page you visit.
http://bit.ly/fO3jq6 -- this extension displays what Twitter and Facebook users are saying about the website you're currently browsing.
http://bit.ly/92jBxs -- this extension allows you to preview your Gmail account without the need to open another tab. It displays the number of unread messages in your inbox, and lets you delete, archive, and mark messages. When you wish to read a message, it opens up your Gmail inbox in a new browsing tab.
http://bit.ly/ltEzJm -- this extension allows you to copy and save multiple text and HTML items onto a web clipboard. You can then paste the items into any Google App that features the Web Clipboard function (e.g. Google Docs).
Application shortcuts enable you to quickly open web applications (like Google Docs) or apps that you've installed from the Chrome Web Store without starting Chromium, by creating shortcuts for them, just like you would a desktop application.
Actually, you're still using Chromium with those apps. By using application shortcuts, however, you're eliminating all the distractions that exist in the browser window like tabs, the Omnibox, bookmark bars, and menus.
Why do that? It's easier to use a shortcut than to fire up a browser, click a bookmark or type a URL, and then log into the web application.
Let's take a look at how to create application shortcuts.
To create a shortcut for a web application, do the following:
To create an application shortcut for an app from the Chrome Web Store, do the following:
Chromium's Developer Tools allow website developers to debug (correct coding errors). Once you determine the problem, you can go to the source file and edit a web page's code to correct the problem.
Developer Tools also monitor the amount of time it takes for each element on a web page to load, which is useful to gauge a website's level of performance, and which allows developers to edit code in order to increase a website's loading speed.
To access the Developer Tools, click on the Wrench icon, select Tools, then click on Developer Tools.
To learn more about Chromium's Developer Tools, watch the introductory videos to Google Chrome's Developer Tools at http://bit.ly/7b4Mdk, and visit Chrome's Developer Tools mini-site at http://code.google.com/chrome/devtools/.
Essentially, covering your tracks means deleting your browsing history after using Chromium. Doing this erases the data that the browser has recorded on your web usage. This also means your browsing preferences -- like your most-visited web addresses, form Autofills, saved passwords, and other types of web page settings -- will be deleted.
To cover your tracks in Chromium, do the following:
Chromium's Incognito mode doesn't record your browsing data. Download history and cookies are deleted once you close any Incognito windows. However, bookmarks and general settings are still saved.
To open an Incognito window, do one of the following:
The Incognito window is distinguished by a different window header design and a New Tab page that gives information on the features in Incognito mode.
Note that Incognito mode only prevents Chromium from recording your browsing data. The websites you browse can still store information about your visit.
If you run into problems while using Chromium, or if you have questions about how to use one of Chromium's features, the Google Chrome Help website provides quite a bit of information that applies not only to Chrome, but also to Chromium. Visit http://www.google.com/support/chrome/?hl=en.
Type in the keywords to your question in the search field, click on Search Help, and you should get either a help article or a help forum topic that deals with your question.
Besides the Google Chrome Help website at http://www.google.com/support/chrome/?hl=en, which provides a wealth of information applicable to Chromium, here are some additional resources to aid or enhance your Chromium experience:
The following topics are some of the more common Chromium issues. For a searchable list of troubleshooting articles, visit the troubleshooting section of Google Chrome Help at http://bit.ly/kJRczQ.
If this happens often when you use Chromium, check the following:
Usually, Chromium runs normally again when you reopen it after a browser crash. If Chromium continues to crash, check this Google Chrome Help page for further steps to correct this error: http://bit.ly/4p1L8f.
Many factors can make web pages load slowly. Try the following to solve this problem:
Apps, abbreviated from web-based applications, are like desktop programs (for example, word processors, photo editing software, music production tools, news websites, games) that don't need to be installed on your computer. Instead, they are web-based and run entirely in Chromium.
Visit the Chrome Web Store at https://chrome.google.com/webstore to browse and download apps for Chromium.
Chromium saves a copy of the web documents you encounter while browsing through websites (for example, HTML pages and images). These copies are stored in a directory known as the cache. When you return to these websites, data can be recalled from the cache instead of being retransmitted from the web server, which minimizes page loading time and speeds up your browsing experience.
For privacy purposes, you can clear this cache in the Under the Hood tab of the Options / Preferences menu.
When you visit a website, it may create and store data about your visit (for example, your settings and preferences on a website, the links you've clicked on, your history of browsed pages, your profile information on the website) in a text file. This text file is a cookie.
For privacy purposes, you can remove cookies in the Under the Hood tab of the Options / Preferences menu.
Chromium's Developer Tools allow website developers to debug (correct coding errors) a web page. Developer Tools also monitor the amount of time it takes for each element on a web page to load, which is useful to gauge a website's level of performance, and which allows developers to edit code in order to increase a website's loading speed.
Extensions are additional features that you can download for use in Chromium. They provide functions like instant Gmail inbox alerts, automatically mapping addresses, verifying the security information of a website, and many more.
Visit the Google Chrome Extensions gallery at https://chrome.google.com/extensions to browse and download extensions for Chromium.
For users who are wary of websites and Chromium recording browsing data, Incognito mode does not record browsing or download history, and cookies stored in Incognito mode are deleted once all Incognito windows are closed.
Note that bookmarks and general browser settings that are created or adjusted in Incognito mode are still recorded.
The option to kill a tab appears when a web page takes a very long time to finish loading, either because there is too much data, or because there are errors on the page. Killing a tab stops the loading process so that you can open a new tab and continue browsing.
Chromium's URL address bar also functions as a field where you can type in keywords for web searches. Its multiple functions inspired the name "Omnibox".
Since Chromium is an ongoing open source browser project, new codes for the browser are constantly being developed by open source programmers. These developments are compiled into a downloadable package and uploaded more or less hourly onto the Chromium download page at http://build.chromium.org/f/chromium/snapshots/. The name snapshot refers to the temporary nature of each version of Chromium, since a newer version is already being developed while a user downloads the current version.
Syncing in Chromium allows you to save your browsing data, like bookmarks, passwords, extensions, and apps, to your Google account so that you can access them no matter what computer you're using.
The following links provide more information on Chromium, from its conception, its continuing developments, to user issues:
All chapters © Edward Cheung 2011, © Scott Nesbitt 2011. All chapters licensed with GNU General Public License version 2.
This documentation is free documentation; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
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Also, you can visit http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-2.0.html to view the GNU General Public License online.