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CSound

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Csound: GLOSSARY

GLOSSARY

 

control cycle, control period or k-loop is a pass during the performance of an instrument, in which all k- and a-variables are renewed. The time for one control cycle is measured in samples and determined by the ksmps constant in the orchestra header. If your sample rate is 44100 and your ksmps value is 10, the time for one control cycle is 1/4410 = 0.000227 seconds. See the chapter about Initialization And Performance Pass for more information.

 

control rate or k-rate (kr) is the number of control cycles per second. It can be calculated as the relationship of the sample rate sr and the number of samples in one control period ksmps. If your sample rate is 44100 and your ksmps value is 10, your control rate is 4410, so you have 4410 control cycles per second.

 

dummy f-statement see f-statement


f-statement or function table statement is a score line which starts with a "f" and generates a function table. See the chapter about function tables for more information. A dummy f-statement is a statement like "f 0 3600" which looks like a function table statement, but instead of generating any table, it serves just for running Csound for a certain time (here 3600 seconds = 1 hour).

 

FFT Fast Fourier Transform is a system whereby audio data is stored or represented in the frequency domain as opposed to the time domain as amplitude values as is more typical. Working with FFT data facilitates transformations and manipulations that are not possible, or are at least more difficult, with audio data stored in other formats.

 

GEN rountine a GEN (generation) routine is a mechanism within Csound used to create function tables of data that will be held in RAM for all or part of the performance. A GEN routine could be a waveform, a stored sound sample, a list of explicitly defined number such as tunings for a special musical scale or an amplitude envelope. In the past function tables could only be created only in the Csound score but now they can also be created (and deleted and over-written) within the orchestra.

 

GUI Graphical User Interface refers to a system of on-screen sliders, buttons etc. used to interact with Csound, normally in realtime.

 

i-time or init-time or i-rate signify the time in which all the variables starting with an "i" get their values. These values are just given once for an instrument call. See the chapter about Initialization And Performance Pass for more information.

 

k-loop see control cycle

 

k-time is the time during the performance of an instrument, after the initialization. Variables starting with a "k" can alter their values in each ->control cycle. See the chapter about Initialization And Performance Pass for more information.

 

k-rate see control rate

 

opcode the code word of a basic building block with which Csound code is written. As well as the opcode code word an opcode will commonly provide output arguments (variables), listed to the left of the opcode, and input arguments (variables). listed to the right of the opcode. An opcode is equivalent to a 'ugen' (unit generator) in other languages.

 

orchestra as in the Csound orchestra, is the section of Csound code where traditionally the instruments are written. In the past the 'orchestra' was one of two text files along with the 'score' that were needed to run Csound. Most people nowadays combine these two sections, along with other optional sections in a .csd (unified) Csound file. The orchestra will also normally contain header statements which will define global aspects of the Csound performance such as sampling rate.

 

p-field a 'p' (parameter) field normally refers to a value contained within the list of values after an event item with the Csound score.

 

performance pass see control cycle

 

score as in the Csound score, is the section of Csound code where note events are written that will instruct instruments within the Csound orchestra to play. The score can also contain function tables. In the past the 'score' was one of two text files along with the 'orchestra' that were needed to run Csound. Most people nowadays combine these two sections, along with other optional sections in a .csd (unified) Csound file.

 

time stretching can be done in various ways in Csound. See sndwarp, waveset, pvstanal mincer, pvsfread, pvsdiskin and the Granular Synthesis opcodes.

 

widget normally refers to some sort of standard GUI element such as a slider or a button. GUI widgets normally permit some user modifications such as size, positioning colours etc. A variety options are available for the creation of widgets usable by Csound, from it own built-in FLTK widgets to those provided by front-ends such as CsoundQT, Cabbage and Blue.

 


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