This manual was started by the team at FLOSS Manuals, and evolved during a two-day Book Sprint at Toronto Open Source Week 2010 held at Seneca College in Toronto, Canada. The sprint was a collaborative effort by FLOSS Manuals and Mozilla Messaging.
Scott Nesbitt did the organization for the event with considerable assistance from Chris Tyler (Seneca College), Beth Agnew (Seneca College) and Adam Hyde.
Blake Winton (Thunderbird Hacker at Mozilla Messaging) also attended.
Around 20 writers, including a number of students from Seneca College's Technical Communications program, collaborated in virtual and real space to produce a book in two days! In addition to original content, material was reused from the excellent Thunderbird Support Knowledge Base.
A great way to understand how email works is to compare it to the mail service provided by the post office. Let's take a look at both of them and see how they get your message to your far-away friend.
Once upon a time, and not so long ago - let's say, the early 1990s - if you wanted to send a letter to a friend you used the postal system. You got paper and pen; wrote the note (maybe going through multiple drafts); put the letter in an envelope; wrote the address on the envelope and stuck a stamp on it; and dropped the letter in a mail box. Then, the post office took your letter and carried it across town (or across the country or across the ocean) and delivered it to your friend. A simplified view of how postal delivery looks like this.
As you can see, the letter passed through many hands to get to your friend's house. The reason that the letter was consistently directed to the right place was the address on the envelope. At each stop in the journey, the person or machine that scanned the address sorted the letter into the correct tray for its destination. If you wrote the wrong address or if the post office read it the wrong way, the letter may have been delivered late, delivered to the wrong address, or returned to you.
At first glance, email looks very different from the regular mail service provided by the post office. It's less physical. There's no one to pick up or deliver the letter, there are no large buildings for sorting and distributing it, and there are no big trucks for carrying it. However, there are similarities. Both mechanisms carry your same message and both require a delivery address for it. This time, though, that address is not the street address but the email address. And finally, there are rules that must be followed for your email to be delivered to your friend. Here's a basic view of how email delivery works.
Like a real letter (or snail mail), an email goes through multiple stages to get from you to your friend. As it goes through these stages (called hops in Internet jargon), it uses several rules (known as protocols).
Software such as Thunderbird must follow these rules for email to be sent and received correctly. Some knowledge about these rules may be useful if you have to configure Thunderbird. Later on, you'll find out how these protocols affect the configuration of your copy of Thunderbird.
Email addresses are made up of two parts that are separated by the @ symbol, something like firstname.lastname@example.org. The first part, john.doe, is the name or alias of a person or organization. The second part, someplace.com, is the online location (domain name in Internet jargon) that is receiving the mail. The service provider's SMTP server uses a service called a Domain Name System (DNS) to find the domain on the Internet. Once the SMTP server has that information it can send the email to the recipient.
An email message has two sections: a message header and a message body. You can think of the message header as the envelope of the email. It contains the address of the sender and recipient, the date the message was sent, and the title of the message. The body of the email is like the letter inside the envelope. The email writer uses Thunderbird to create both the header and the body by entering some information, including the recipients' email address(es), the subject line and the message itself. Other bits of information, such as the date and the sender's email address are all created by your email client or web mail application.
Though there are no standards on writing for emails, you should remember that many email messages are delivered to and from prospective employers, professional colleagues, and institutions. Because of the wide use of mobile devices and social networking websites such as Facebook, many people tend to use more colloquial and colorful language to communicate their thoughts and ideas in both personal and public electronic messages. People may use shortcuts and unconventional abbreviations in instant and text messaging to demonstrate effective time management skills and witty conversational skills. However, in the context of email, which is usually more professional and formal, such shortcuts and informality can demonstrate a lack of professionalism and outright lack of writing skills.
Every mailing list is different so it is extremely important that you spend some time understanding how to participate in a way that is acceptable to the members of the list. Before posting, take some time to read the mailing list archives. Spend a little time observing and be sure to inquire about and read any codes of conduct or guidelines before you post.
Here are some specific guidelines that should apply across communities:
Thunderbird runs on Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, Windows Vista, and Windows 7. Thunderbird will run on a computer with at least the following hardware:
Installing Thunderbird involves two steps: first, downloading the software and then running the installation program. Here is how to do that:
If you want to use Thunderbird in a different language or with a different operating system, click the Other Systems and Languages link and select the version that you need.
The web browser displays a message asking you to start the download:
Internet Explorer 8
Click the Save button to save the Thunderbird Setup file to your computer.
Click the Next button to start the installation. If you want to cancel it, click the Cancel button.
Click the Next button to continue the installation. The Back button takes you to the Welcome screen and the Cancel button stops the installation.
If the Launch Mozilla Thunderbird now checkbox is selected, Thunderbird starts after it has been installed.
Thunderbird runs on Mac OS X 10.4.x and later. Thunderbird will run on a computer with at least the following hardware:
If you want to use Thunderbird in a different languages or with a different operating system, click the Other Systems and Languages link on the right side of the page and select the version you need.
Note: When you run Thunderbird for the first time, newer versions of Mac OS X (10.5 or later) will warn you that the application Thunderbird.app was downloaded from the Internet.
If you downloaded Thunderbird from the Mozilla site, click the Open button.
Ubuntu is not the only Linux distribution out there. You can install Thunderbird on any Linux distribution using that distribution's package manager. For example, use YaST in OpenSUSE or yum in Fedora.
The system requirements for other Linux distributions are the same as the requirements for Ubuntu.
Thunderbird will not run without the following libraries or packages installed on your computer:
Mozilla recommends that a Linux system also have the following libraries or packages installed:
If your distribution's package manager does not have the latest version of Thunderbird, you can download the software from the Thunderbird Web site at http://www.mozillamessaging.com/en-US/thunderbird/. Click the download link on the main page of the Web site:
Your browser then downloads a compressed file (called an archive) to your computer with a file name like Thunderbird-3.1.5.tar.bz2.
$ cp -a directory/filename /usr/local
$ cd /usr/local $ tar -xjvf filename.tar.bz2
$ rm filename
$ ln -s ../../usr/local/thunderbird/thunderbird /usr/bin/thunderbird
FLOSS is an abbreviation for Free/Libre/Open Source Software. The terms Free, Libre, and Open Source are all used to describe software that guarantees certain freedoms both to users and to programmers. Groups that promote the use of FLOSS software often use different terms to refer to it. For example, the Free Software Foundation and the GNU Project often refer to "free" software, while other groups including Debian and the Open Source Initiative promote "Open Source" software. In English, the term "free" can mean either "no-cost" or "having liberty or freedom", so "libre software" is often used to emphasize that the software provides freedom rather than simply being free of cost.
The ideas encapsulated in the terms "free" and "open" are similar but not identical. While there are dozens of variations of these terms in use, all FLOSS software shares some of the same basic ideals of software freedom, including:
The specific freedoms provided by each software project can vary, but these ideas form the basis for most FLOSS licenses. From a user's perspective, FLOSS software is always free to use and to copy, both now and in the future. There are some unclear boundary lines and gray areas that must be kept in mind when copying or distributing FLOSS software, including trademarks and "proprietary" drivers in the Linux kernel. Each FLOSS software project includes detailed information on what rights are guaranteed by the software license. A wide variety of FLOSS is available for all common platforms, including BSD, Linux, Mac OS, and Windows.
Removing Thunderbird is pretty easy to do. But the process to uninstall Thunderbird varies depending on the operating system you are using. This chapter looks at the steps for uninstalling Thunderbird on Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux.
If you want to migrate your email from another email client or a web email service like Gmail or Hotmail, Thunderbird can help you do the job. However, migration is not always easy, especially if you have a large archive of sorted email and address books that you want to keep. That said, Thunderbird does a quite a good job of migrating your mail from Outlook, Outlook Express, Eudora, and Apple Mail.
Before you consider migrating to Thunderbird, be prepared to do a little research on the best way to back up your email.
First, you should find out whether or not you can migrate your email from your current software. A good place to find information is the Mozilla knowledge base:
Always back up your email. How you do the back up depends on your operating system and the way that you currently manage your email. It can be as easy as finding the folder with all your email in it and copying it to another folder or, preferably, another computer or back up disk. However, things are seldom that easy.
When you have determined that you can migrate to Thunderbird and you have backed up your email, then follow the steps below.
Here's how to import address books from another email client into Thunderbird.
You'll see the Import wizard window.
Here's how to transfer your email from another email client into Thunderbird.
You can find the imported mail in the Local Folders section of the Folders pane.
Thunderbird can import contact lists from other email applications and some web mail services, as long as the other applications can export their lists to a text file format that Thunderbird can read (for example, LDIF, tab delimited or comma separated). You can find information about how to export a contact list to a text file in the help for the other email application or web mail service.
After exporting the contact list from another application, you can import the contacts file into Thunderbird. Here's how:
The column on the left shows the fields in Thunderbird's contact list. The column on the right shows the fields in the original email application's contact list. If you un-check fields they will not be imported. To change the match between the left and right columns, select an item and click Move Up or Move Down to map it to a different column.
There are two procedures for installing Thunderbird on Ubuntu: one for version 10.04 or later, and one for earlier versions of Ubuntu. We take a look at both below:
Thunderbird will not run without the following libraries or packages installed on your computer:
Mozilla recommends that a Linux system also has the following libraries or packages installed:
If you're using Ubuntu 10.04 or newer, the easiest way to install Thunderbird is through the Ubuntu Software Center.
You can find the shortcut to start Thunderbird in the Internet option under the Applications menu:
If you are installing Thunderbird under a version of Ubuntu older than 10.04, you can do it with either
the Ubuntuzilla package or with Synaptic Package Manager. You can get more information about Ubuntuzilla here: http://sourceforge.net/apps/mediawiki/ubuntuzilla/index.php.
If you want to stay on the cutting edge of Thunderbird, you can install it from a Personal Package Archive (PPA). A PPA is special repository for Ubuntu software that's separate from ones you would normally use either with the Ubuntu Software Center or Synaptic Package Manager. A PPA contains more frequent updates to software -- updates which are often created nightly.
Remember that the software that you get from a PPA is 'cutting edge'. It may be buggy or unstable. Use it at your own risk.
deb http://ppa.launchpad.net/ubuntu-mozilla-daily/ppa/ubuntu maverick main
deb-src http://ppa.launchpad.net/ubuntu-mozilla-daily/ppa/ubuntu maverick main
If you've used previous versions of Thunderbird and you prefer keeping some of the older features and setups, Migration Assistant allows you to do so. You can configure four items: message synchronization, the Message Toolbar, a Compact Header, and Advanced Folder Columns.
To open the Migration Assistant, go to the Help menu and click Migration Assistant.
You can synchronize your messages to load them faster and to get more comprehensive search results. However, this requires much more disk space. If you're using Thunderbird for multiple email accounts, you can also set your message synchronization according to each account.
You can adjust the message toolbar to display buttons such as Reply, Forward, and Delete.
This extension compresses the message header where the "From", "Subject", and "To" fields are into one line. It's useful to provide more window space for your Preview and Message Panes.
This extension adds three columns in the folder view: Unread, Total, and Size. For each folder, the columns tell you how many unread messages there are, how many messages there are in total, and how much disk space the folder occupies.
When you're done with the Migration Assistant, click Close. For your configuration to take effect, remember to close Thunderbird and reopen it.
There are two way to create new email accounts in Thunderbird. The first way is an automated process that guides you through the set up routine. The second is manual, where you enter all of the account information yourself. Let's take a look at both.
The automated setup process runs the first time that you start Thunderbird. Remember that you can also run the setup at anytime by going to the File menu, pointing at New, and clicking Mail Account.
Here's how to work your way through the automated setup process:
If Thunderbird finds the information for your email provider it automatically enters that information for you. Click the Create Account button to add the account. Click the Cancel button to stop the set up process.
If you use Microsoft Windows, you use the Windows Search feature to find messages. Do this by selecting the Allow Windows to search messages checkbox. Click the OK button to save the settings and the Cancel button to leave them unchanged.
Note: Thunderbird will create your account even if you click Cancel at this point.
If the automated set up process does not work or if the database of ISPs that Mozilla maintains doesn't contain information about your email provider, you can set up your account manually. Your email provider should supply you with the information that you'll to set up an account. You can usually find this information on your email provider's website, or by contacting their technical support department.
Enter your name, your email address, and email password and then click the Continue button.
At this point, click the Stop button to start creating the account manually:
The IMAP and POP screens look slightly different than the Windows screens. For more information on IMAP and POP, read this short Gmail help article: https://mail.google.com/support/bin/static.py?page=ts.cs&ts=1668960
In Outgoing Server (SMTP) Settings click the Add button.
Here's how to remove an email account from Thunderbird.
The account is removed from Thunderbird and is no longer in the Account Settings screen.
The main Thunderbird window has has four main parts:
Let's take a closer look at each of these parts of the window.
Think of the Menu Bar as your entry point into Thunderbird's basic commands and functions. This is the basic Menu Bar:
You can find a detailed list of the items in each of the menus at the Mozilla Messaging support site:
Some add-ons (which are covered in the chapter Using Add-Ons) add extra menus to the Menu Bar. Like what? For example, the Lightning calendar add-on adds a menu named Events and Tasks to the Menu Bar.
The toolbar gives you quick access to some frequently-used Thunderbird commands and functions. When you install Thunderbird, the toolbar contains four items:
You can also add or remove buttons from the toolbar. Say that you regularly print your emails. You add a print button to the toolbar by right-clicking on the toolbar and then clicking Customize in the menu that pops up. The Customize Toolbar window appears.
You can add a new button to the toolbar by dragging an icon from the window on to the toolbar.
A search bar is available on the right side of the toolbar. You use it to find specific messages in any of your mailboxes or folders.
Type what you want to search for--for example, the name of someone who sent you an email or a couple of words in the subject line or body of the message--and then press Enter on your keyboard. Any messages that match your search keywords appear in a new tab.
You can filter the search results by clicking the text in the left panel or selecting time ranges from the timeline above the message list.
The Folders pane is on the left side of the main Thunderbird window.
The Folders pane lists all of the email accounts that you have set up in Thunderbird, and all of the mail folders that you have set up for each account. For example, the pane displays your inbox, the sent emails folder, and the junk mail folder. Click on a folder to display its contents in the preview pane.
You can click the arrows at the top of the Folders pane to get different views of your folders. For example, you can see the folders that you most recently viewed. This is helpful when you have a many folders or multiple email accounts.
The Message pane lists your messages, with the newest appearing first in the list. The Preview pane, which is just below the Message pane, shows the body of a message that you clicked on in the Message pane.
While the messages in the Message pane are listed by their dates, you can sort them by clicking the Subject, From, or Date headers at the top of the Message pane.
The Message pane doesn't only list new messages. If you saved messages into another folder, then click on that folder and the messages will appear in the Message pane.
Use the Account Settings dialog to configure mail servers, account information, and account-specific settings. You open it by going to the Tools menu and clicking Account Settings. The left panel displays a list of the configured accounts. The right panel is used to configure account details.
When you first set up your email accounts, Thunderbird configures itself to get new email automatically. By default, it looks for new messages each time you start it and then it rechecks at ten minute intervals. Typically, Thunderbird puts the messages into your Inbox folder. You can also manually check for new messages in your account. Let's take a look at how to configure Thunderbird's refresh schedule and at how to get emails manually.
The Account Settings window opens.
There are several ways to manually look for new email using Thunderbird. You can:
This chapter shows you how to compose and send email with Thunderbird. It also explains how to reply to or forward emails you have received from others. On top of that, you'll learn to add tables and to format email by changing fonts and colors. Finally, if you want to add images or attachments to an email, this will demonstrate how it's done.
In Thunderbird, you can write, review, and send emails to your recipients. Here's how:
You'll often receive emails that require a reply and other ones that you'll want to forward to a third party. Here's how to use Thunderbird to handle these tasks.
There are several ways to add email addresses to your messages. Of course, you can simply type them directly into the email or you can copy and paste them from other emails. However, if you have a lot of contacts, you can use the Thunderbird Address Book to supply email addresses for your messages via Thunderbird's address auto-completion feature and the Contacts Sidebar. Let's take a look at how to use them.
The message composition window has a Contacts sidebar that lists your contacts from the Thunderbird Address Book.
You can format the text in your email as HTML or as plain text. If you use HTML, you work in much the same way as when using a word processor such as Open Office Write or AbiWord. You get a lot of control over the appearance of your message. You can change fonts, set font styles and colors, insert tables, and add pictures. Plain text is exactly what it sounds like: text only with no formatting at all.
|HTML/Rich Text Email||Plain Text Email|
The default outgoing message format in Thunderbird is HTML. It can be changed by going to the Option menu, pointing to Format, and picking from one of the four displayed options.
The format bar is visible when you use the HTML format. To use it, you highlight the text that you want formatted and then select the appropriate format button from the bar.
|1||Text Style||Body Text, Paragraph,Header sizes 1-6, Address, and Unformatted.|
|2||Font Type||Variable width, fixed width, fonts installed on your computer.|
|3||Font Color||Text color picker.|
|4||Font Size||Click the larger icon to enlarge the font. Click the smaller icon to make it smaller.|
|5||Font Style||Bold, italic, or underline.|
|6||Lists||Numbered list or bullet list.|
|7||Indent||Click the right icon to indent text to the right. Click the left to un-indent it.|
|8||Alignment||Left, right, center, or justify text.|
|9||Insert||Add links, anchors, images, horizontal lines, or tables.|
|10||Emoticons||Add one to show how you're feeling!|
Here's an example of how you use the format bar.
Let's go cycling today. The weather be will perfect for a ride in the mountains. Better bring low gears for the big climbs!
Note that Thunderbird does not display the format bar when you use the plain text format.
Here's how to put a picture into the body of your Rich Text(HTML) email.
One of email's convenient features is its ability to carry a document to the recipient. This works the same for both Plain Text and HTML emails. Be careful of the size of your attachments because most email providers limit attachment size. The maximum size is frequently about 10 MB but you should check with your provider to be sure.
Here's how to attach a file to an email.
You have many options for adding and formatting tables when composing a new message. You can use a default table, which looks like this:
However, you may want to play around with formatting to make your table look more presentable.
Signatures are blocks of text that are automatically appended to every message that you send (including both new messages and replies to incoming messages). They are generally used to provide additional contact information, legal terms or some other boilerplate information that is relevant to every email. For example, an email signature might say something like:
John Doe Minion The Big Example Organization
Signatures are created in Thunderbird's Account Settings interface. Go to the Tools menu (or the Edit menu on Ubuntu) and select Account Settings. Then, in the left panel of the Account Settings window, select the account for which you want to create a signature.
If you have multiple email accounts, you must configure signatures separately for each account.
To configure a plain-text signature, enter the text you want to append to each outgoing message in the Signature text field. Plain text signatures work with messages formatted both in HTML and in text.
Creating a signature like this...
To use HTML formatting in your signature, check Use HTML and format the signature text with the HTML markup that you want to use. Note that if you send messages in text (rather than HTML) format, text characters will be substituted for the HTML markup.
Creating a signature like this...
Alternatively, you can upload a file that contains your signature. Check Attach the signature from a file instead and the click Choose to select the file. The file can contain either plain or HTML-formatted text. If you have an HTML-formatted signature, the message recipient must be able to view HTML-formatted messages in their email program. If they have disabled this ability, the signature will be rendered in as text and images will not be displayed.
One way to create a signature file is by using the Thunderbird composer. As an example, create a new HTML-formatted message in Thunderbird (go to the File menu, point to New and click Message). Make sure that the HTML toolbar is displayed. (If it is not displayed, you are composing a message formatted in text, not HTML. To change to HTML, go to the Options menu, point to Format and click Rich Text (HTML) Only.)
To include an image file from your local computer in a signature, follow the steps above to create an HTML signature. When you are composing the signature contents, though, go to the Insert menu and click Image to specify the desired image.
In addition to selecting the image file, use this dialog to configure other aspects of the image, such as the size, a URL link, its position with regards to the text, etc.
You can also specify an image located on a web server as part of your attachment. Just specify the image URL in the field where you would otherwise specify the file name. If you check Attach this image to the message, the image will be included as an attachment. If you do not attach the image, the people receiving your message Internet connection to view the image. Also, keep in mind that for security reasons many people configure their email programs to block remote content, which would prevent the image from displaying unless it was attached to the message.
When placing a signature in a text based email, a default "-- " (dash, dash, space) is inserted to separate text. To switch it off for all identities of your accounts, you can access your Configuration Console and change mail.identity.default.suppress_signature_separator to "true".
To access the *Configuration Console:
It's important to note that removing the signature makes it a part of the message you compose. When replying to messages where the signature is placed below your reply, but above the quote, signatures won't be removed if you choose to change identities.
The preference also provides a way to always add the signature separator. Using the Configuration Console as mentioned above, you can set the preference to "true" and manually add "-- " (dash, dash, space) separators to your signature. While this makes it consistent, quotes become part of your signature and are removed when you reply to them.
*In modifying any preferences in your configuration console, you may run the risk of harming the stability, security and performance of your Thunderbird application.
You can see your emails in three ways with Thunderbird:
Here's how to do that.
Thunderbird will open the email in a new tab. You can have many emails open in tabs.
Close the tab by clicking the "X" icon that is at the far right of the tab.
The email opens in a new window.
You can drag and drop open tabs to create new windows. Having multiple windows is a good way to separate your work and personal accounts, or to separate individual emails. Here's how to to do it:
Open an email that you want to print.
When you receive a message that has an attached file, an icon is displayed next to the message in the message list:
The bottom of the message window shows the number of attachments associated with a message and the sum of their size. If there is only one attachment, the attachment file name will also be displayed. If their are multiple attachments, click the arrow to the left of the text to see the names of each attachment.
To view an attachment, click the file name. The attachment will be opened with the application that is assigned to the attachment's file type on your system.
Alternatively, click the button in the bottom right corner. Select open or open all (The name of the option will vary depending on the number of attachments the message has.) You can also use the File | Attachments menu to open one or more attachments.
When you view an attachment, the file is copied to the location specified in the Attachments preference.
You can save one or more attachments without opening them. Similar to viewing an attachment, select save or save all in the bottom right corner of the message window, or select File | Attachments from the menu bar. You will be prompted to specify the location where the file(s) should be saved.
You can also delete an attachment. This deletes the file associated with the message. It does not save the message to the local filesystem. Select delete or delete all as described above.
Finally, you can save the attachment to your filesystem but remove it from the email message by using the detach function (accessed in the same manner as the save and delete functions).
Right-click the message, point to Move To, point to the account where you want to move the message, and click the destination folder.
Archiving is an easy and quick way to move emails from your Inbox to an archive folder for future reference.
When you tell Thunderbird to delete an email it doesn't actually delete it. Instead, Thunderbird moves the email to your email account's trash folder. By default, emails are permanently deleted using the rules of the email account provider. This is good to know because it means that you can retrieve emails that you accidentally deleted.
Thunderbird has a variety of ways to find messages. The Global Search function provides sophisticated full-text search capabilities and displays categorized search results. You can search using one word or multiple words, and can search within specific mailboxes and folders. You can use the Quick Filter to narrow down the number of messages displayed in the message list according to specific criteria. You can also search for text within a single message.
Global Search goes through all of your messages, regardless of the account the message is associated with or the folder where the message is stored. The search is performed in all message fields: subject, message body, from address, to address, etc. The search is not case-sensitive - searching for "thunderbird" will return messages that contain both "thunderbird" and "Thunderbird".
The search results are shown in a new tab.
To search for a single term:
To search for multiple terms, type two or more words in the search box. Thunderbird searches for messages that contain at least one occurrence of each of the words that you typed. If you enclose multiple words in quotation marks, Thunderbird returns search results that contain messages having all the words in the order they are specified in the search field. These two types of searches can be combined.
Search results appear in a new tab and there is a panel on the left of the tab that categorizes the results. The panel shows the number of messages containing the term(s) in conversations with specific people, in messages stored in particular mail folders, and in messages from individual email accounts.
Use the Filters fields in the left panel to filter the messages returned by the original search. If you click an item under "Folder", "People" or "Account", you will be given the option to specify whether the message must (or must not) contain the item.
For example, say you were searching for "Thunderbird" AND "pages". You could refine the search results by selecting messages where you were a recipient (by clicking the To Me check box). Then, you could further refine the results by selecting specific people and mail folders associated with the message (by clicking on the text in the left panel). You can remove selected people or mail folders from the filter criteria by clicking on the text again.
A timeline appears above the messages included in the search results. The timeline shows the number of messages that match the search criteria, organized in chronological order. Click the bar-graph icon in the top right corner to show the timeline display.
Use the Quick Filter toolbar, which appears above all message lists, to filter a list of messages.
After you type filter terms in the search box and press Enter, you have the option of applying the filter to the Sender, Recipients, or Subject fields or body of the messages in the list. Click the relevant buttons to activate the filter. In the example below, the filter term has been applied to the Subject and Body fields.
In addition to specifying filter terms, you can filter messages based on other characteristics. These functions are available on the left side of the Quick Filter toolbar, and can be used in combination with filter terms.
To search for text within a single message, go to the Edit menu, point to Find, and click Find in this Message. A toolbar appears under the message preview pane. Type your search term into the toolbar's text box. As you type, Thunderbird looks for instances of the term in the message.
You move through occurrences of the search terms using the Next and Previous buttons, or you can click Highlight all to see all occurrences of the search terms.
Thunderbird allows you to archive your messages. This means that they can be moved from the default folder to the archive folders without deleting the messages altogether. This makes it easy to organize archives or move them to a backup device, which keeps the Inbox clean. These archived messages are indexed by Thunderbird's search.
NOTE: Messages can only be archived manually and not automatically.
To archive one or more messages:
NOTE: You can also archive a selected message by selecting the 'A' key on your keyboard.
You can configure the location for archived messages individually for each of your email accounts. Here's how to do that.
To configure the location of archived messages:
The archive folder structure can be configured by clicking on the Archive options button.
In this window, you have options to archive messages to:
Archiving is automatically enabled in Thunderbird.
To disable archiving:
The Thunderbird address book stores your contact information, including email addresses and names, phone numbers, instant messaging addresses, along with other information. When you write a message or reply to a message, the recipients are automatically added to the address book. For Macintosh users, entries in address books that Mac OS X maintains also appear in Thunderbird's address book. You can also manually add addresses to the address book.
When you compose a message, Thunderbird uses the characters you enter in the "To", "CC" and "BCC" fields to try to determine the email address you want to use. Thunderbird compares the characters you enter to the first and last names of people in your address book, and the "name" portion of the email address (not the domain). Matches appear in a drop-down list.
Here's how to open Thunderbird's Address Book. Once it's open, you can view, edit or delete the entries in your address book.
Open the Address Book by clicking the Address Book button.
The left panel in the address book displays individual address books. The top panel on the right displays the addresses within the selected address book. The bottom panel on the right displays information for the address book selected in the top panel.
When you view an email message, a star beside an email address (in the "from", "to" or "CC" field) indicates whether or not the address is saved in your address book. If the star is colored (blue on a Mac, yellow on Windows and Ubuntu), the address is already in your address book. If the star is only outlined, the address is not in your address book.To add the address to your address book, either click the star or right-click the email address and select Add to Address Book.
Your contact is now saved in Thunderbird's address book.
Your changes are now saved.
Your contact has been deleted from Thunderbird's address book.
You can save contacts from the Address Book into a text file for use in another application. The process for doing this is called exporting. Here's how to export your contacts.
If you plan to import the contacts into another email application, make sure that you check the file formats that application supports.
Click the Write button or right click on the name of the contact and click Write from the menu.
If your address book contains a large number of contacts, you can find contacts using Address Book search feature. The search feature allows you to create searches that filter contacts based on criteria that you set up.
Thunderbird provides security measures to protect you from junk mail, identity theft, viruses (with the help of your anti-virus software, of course), intellectual property theft, and malicious web sites.
Thunderbird has a number of security features, including:
Adaptive junk mail controls allow you to train Thunderbird to identify junk email (SPAM) and remove it from your inbox. You can also mark messages as junk mail manually if your email provider's system misses the junk mail and lets it go through. There are two ways of doing this.
The first way is to click the message in the Message pane and then click the Junk button in the Preview pane. If you accidentally mark a legitimate message as junk, you can quickly change the message back. After you click the Junk button, a bar appears in the Preview pane that says Junk Mail. Click the Not Junk button.
The second way of marking mail as junk mail manually is by using the Message menu bar. Here's how to do it:
If your anti-virus software supports Thunderbird, you can use that software to quarantine messages that contain viruses or other malicious content. If you're wondering what anti-virus software works with Thunderbird, you can find a list here: http://kb.mozillazine.org/Antivirus_software.
Thunderbird supports SSL/TLS and STARTTLS as well as password encryption, Kerberos, and NTLM. You can learn more about these methods for securing connections here: http://kb.mozillazine.org/Secure_connections_-_Thunderbird.
You can include a digital signature to verify the authenticity of a message.
You can encrypt your messages using a shared encryption certificate. Note that all recipients of an encrypted message must also have the encryption certificate. You can get one from a number of websites although you may have to pay to get the certificate.
For your convenience, you can have Thunderbird remember each of your individual passwords. You can specify a master password that you enter each time you start Thunderbird. This will enable Thunderbird to open all your email accounts with your saved passwords.
Some blogs and websites attempt to send cookies (a piece of text that stores information from Web sites on your computer) with their RSS feeds. These cookies are often used by content providers to provide targeted advertising. Thunderbird rejects cookies by default, but you can configure Thunderbird to accept some or all cookies.
In the Security Preferences section of Thunderbird's Options/Preferences dialog box you can:
Let's take a look at how to do that.
You can specify security settings for individual email accounts and for Thunderbird's local folders In the Thunderbird Account Settings window. You can configure:
There are two ways to access the Account Settings window. Note that settings configured in the Account Settings window apply only to the account that you select in the Folders pane. You must configure local folders separately.
Before you can configure connection security, you'll need to get some security information from your email provider. You can find this information in the help or support sections of your email provider's web site, or by contacting technical support.
While you can get to any of Thunderbird's functions using a mouse, you might find it faster and more efficient to use combinations of keys on your keyboard to access those functions. That way you don't need to take your hands off your keyboard while you're writing email messages.
Remember that some keyboard shortcuts might not work when you are in certain parts of the Thunderbird interface. For example, when you click on a message in the message list, the Cut, Copy and Paste keyboard shortcuts are disabled. That's because it doesn't make sense to cut and paste text into the message list.
Here are the keyboard shortcuts for frequently-used features in Thunderbird:
|Feature|| Windows and Linux
|| Mac OS X
||Ctrl + N or Ctrl + M
||Command + M
|Move to Search Bar (Global Search)
||Ctrl + K
||Command + K
||Ctrl + Z
||Command + Z
||Ctrl + Y
||Command + Y
||Ctrl + C
||Command + C
||Ctrl + P
||Command + P
|Increase text size
||Ctrl + +
||Command + +
|Decrease text size
||Ctrl + -
||Command + -
||Ctrl + Shift + K||Command + Shift + K|
|Send and receive all messages
||Ctrl + T or F5
||Command + T or F5
|Mark message as read or unread
|Add or remove the star from a message
|Save the message as a file
||Ctrl + S
||Command + S
|Collapse All Threads
|Expand All Threads
|Find text in current message
||Ctrl + F
||Command + F
|Search for messages in a folder (search dialog)
||Ctrl + Shift + F
||Command + Shift + F
|Find again in current message
||Ctrl + G + F3
||Command + G + F3
|Find previous in current message
||Ctrl + Shift + G
||Command + Shift + G|
If you are like most people, you probably receive a lot of email from friends, family, co-workers, and others. It can be very difficult to manage and keep track of all of those messages.
Thunderbird gives you two very powerful and useful ways to manage your messages: tagging and marking. Let's take a look them.
Using tags, you can give your email messages a priority or just categorize them in a way that makes sense for you. Thunderbird comes with several preset tags:
Each tag has its own color.
When you want to apply a tag to a message, do this:
If you need to create a new tag, you can by doing this:
You can get rid of tags that you no longer need by doing this:
The Thunderbird Preferences window opens.
Whenever you click on an email message in the Message pane, it is marked as having been read. Sometimes, though, you might want to revisit the message at a later date and will want to distinguish it from other messages in your inbox or in your mail folders. Or you might want to visually point out a message as being important using a star. Marking your emails is a simple but useful way of doing that. Here's how to do it.
RSS is short for Really Simple Syndication. It enables you to subscribe to information that frequently changes - like the content on a news web site or a blog. You don't need to go to the site or blog to get the latest news. It's pushed to you in what's called an RSS feed. Actually, the feed is pushed to a piece of software called an RSS reader, like the popular Google Reader. But you don't need Google Reader, or any other program, to read RSS feeds. You can do it in Thunderbird.
Setting up Thunderbird to read RSS feeds is a two-step process. First you set up a blogs and news account and then you add subscriptions to that account. Let's look at how to do this.
Before you can use Thunderbird to read RSS feeds, you need to set up an account for blogs and news feeds. You only need to do this once. Here's how:
The Account Settings window opens.
You now have an account that will allow you to use RSS feeds. Let's add some feeds to that account.
Here's how to add an RSS feed.
The Account Settings window opens.
The feed URL is the web address from where information will be pushed to Thunderbird. A feed URL looks something like this: http://blog.booki.cc/?feed=rss2.
What happens when you need to change an RSS subscription? Let's find out.
Here's how to change the settings for an RSS feed.
The Account Settings window opens.
Why would you want to export an RSS feed? Perhaps you want to have a backup. Or maybe you want to move your feeds to another feed reader. Thunderbird saves feeds as an OPML (Outline Processor Markup Language) file. OPML is a type of file that's used to exchange information between feed readers.
Here's how to export your RSS feeds from Thunderbird.
Have an RSS feed that you or a friend have exported from another feed reader? You can import it into Thunderbird. Here's how:
Filters help you place your incoming mail in different folders so that you're not overwhelmed by a large number of messages in your inbox. Filters can also perform a number of other actions like marking messages as read, or forwarding messages to another email address.
One way to use a filter is to move messages to a certain folder. For example, if you receive many emails from Facebook and you do not want to see them pile up in your inbox, set up a filter that moves your messages from the inbox to a folder called "Facebook".
This chapter covers some tips and tricks that can make your use of Thunderbird easier, more enjoyable, and more efficient.
Your profile is a collection of information about how you use and have set up Thunderbird. The profile contains:
It's a good idea to back up your profile. Why? If Thunderbird crashes, the crash can corrupt your profile and make it unusable. If your computer crashes, it can take your Thunderbird settings with it. And if you're moving to a new computer, copying your profile over is faster and easier than manually setting up Thunderbird again.
Note that your profile may be quite large, especially if you have a lot of email messages. It's possible to have a profile that contains several gigabytes of email data. If your profile is that big, you should be careful about where you copy and store it. While today's hard drives are quite large, if you save multiple copies of your profile you may fill up your drive with Thunderbird profiles.
Backing up your profile involves two steps: finding your profile and copying it somewhere else. Here's how to do both.
Your profile is stored in your computer's user or home directory. Let's take a look at finding it on Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux.
To find your profile in Windows:
Your profile folder will have a name like xxxxxxxx.default, where xxxxxxxx is a set of random characters like q4sl99rt.
To find your profile in Mac OS:
From your home folder open the folder at Library:Thunderbird:Profile.
To find your profile in Linux:
Here's how to backup your profile.
When you need to restore the your profile, just move the files that you backed up into your profile directory.
There is a free program called MozBackUp which will back up your Thunderbird or Firefox profile for you. It has a wizard that steps you through the process of backing up and restoring bookmarks, mail, contacts, history, extensions, passwords, cache, and other Mozilla user or configuration data.
If you actually do want to automatically delete old messages, you don't have to do that manually. Instead, you can set a message retention policy to automatically delete messages. A message retention policy will delete email messages in a folder after a certain time. You can set a retention policy for individual mail folders.
Here's how to do it.
From now on, Thunderbird will delete messages in that folder based on the retention policy you create.
Chances are that you have more than just a couple of passwords for things like online banking, your favorite social media sites, and (of course) your email accounts. When you set up your email accounts in Thunderbird, you probably set it up to remember passwords for those accounts.
If you've forgotten those passwords, it's not a problem because you can retrieve those passwords from Thunderbird. Here's how:
In Windows 7, the Jump Lists function lets you quickly open the files or functions you use the most . By right-clicking on a program icon in the taskbar, a small window opens with a list of recent and frequently accessed files and tasks.
For Thunderbird, the Jump List function shows two common tasks: write new message and open address book.
With Activity Manager, you can access a window that displays all user activity and history between Thunderbird and your email provider. All your different processes, and email activity can be tracked down in one place.
You can access the Activity Manager by selecting Tools > Activity Manager. If you find the Activity Manager to be cluttered, you can clear the list of processes by clicking the Clear List button at the bottom of the Activity Manager window.
Unified Folders combines folders from more than one account. By clicking View > Folders you can use the radio buttons to select the view that you want:
Unified - combines all of your mailboxes from several accounts into one view.
All - provides separate folders for each mail account:
Unread - shows all folders with unread messages:
Favorite - shows your favorite folders:
Recent - shows the most recently used folders
Another option for changing the folders view is to use the arrows located just above the folders area.
This allows you to cycle through the different view options.
Add-ons are small programs the you can add to Thunderbird to extend its capabilities. There are literally dozens of add-ons available for Thunderbird. What can add-ons do? Here are some examples of the available add-ons:
Obviously, we can't cover every add-on in this manual. But we will be looking at the following ones:
But before we get to the extensions, let's take a look at how to add and manage them.
You use the Add-ons Manager to add, enable or disable, and delete Thunderbird add-ons. Start the Add-ons Manager by selecting Tools > Add-ons. The Add-ons Manager opens in a new tab in the Thunderbird window.
You'll notice that there are several add-ons featured in the tab. Those are either popular or recommended add-ons. But, obviously, they're not the only ones available. If you want to find a specific add-on, do one of the following:
There are two ways that you can install an add-on: by downloading it and installing it through the Add-ons Manager, or by searching for the add-on in the Add-ons Manager and installing it directly from the Mozilla add-ons site.
Why two methods? You might be an add-on developer who needs to test your creation. Or you come across a third-party add-on that isn't on Mozilla's site.
Note: You should only install add-ons from people who you trust. Otherwise, you could be opening yourself up to viruses or malware.
To install an add-on from the Mozilla site:
To install a downloaded add-on:
Using the Add-ons Manager, you can quickly and easily enable or disable any of your installed add-ons. Why would you want to do that? When you upgrade Thunderbird, the application disables all third-party add-ons (ones that you didn't install from the Mozilla website). In that case, you'll need to re-enable those add-ons.
Or, if you run into problems with Thunderbird the cause is sometimes a conflict caused by an add-on. To diagnose the problem, you'll need to turn off your extensions and then selectively turn them back on. For more information about this, see the section Add-Ons in the Troubleshooting chapter.
To enable and disable add-ons:
Note: You might have to restart Thunderbird for the changes to take effect. To do that, click the Restart Now link.
ThunderBrowse is a browser extension for Thunderbird. With it you can browse the Internet from within your email client without using any other applications. The browser provides navigation buttons and an address bar.
Let's find out how to install and setup ThunderBrowse
A message asking you to verify that you chose the correct extension appears.
A message asking you to verify that you chose the correct extension appears.
Thunderbird Conversations is a Thunderbird Add-on that allows you to get a conversation view in Thunderbird, in the style of popular web-based email services, such as Gmail.
Thunderbird Conversations is available for download from the official Mozilla Add-ons site. Once the file is downloaded, install the add-on. For more information, see the section Using the Add-ons Manager.
You'll need to restart Thunderbird for the changes to take effect. After restarting Thunderbird, you will be presented with a setup assistant. Click Apply changes, and after a short pause, you should be able to use Thunderbird Conversations.
Thunderbird Conversations gives you a threaded view of email conversations. This means that one conversation is now contained on one line only.
The small arrow indicates that this line represents a conversation that contains more than one message. Click on this line, and you will be presented with the conversation view in place of the old message display.
Instead of displaying a single message, Thunderbird Conversations now displays all messages that belong to the conversation. It may be that Thunderbird Conversations finds messages related to the current conversation in other folders. In this case, it will notify you about it. You click the blue label to jump to that folder.
You can scroll inside the conversation, and click on message snippets to expand the messages. If you wish, you can click on the small triangle that's next to the selected message in the message list. It will expand the thread, and if you click on an individual message, it will focus the corresponding message in the conversation view.
If you leave your mouse on some participant's name, it will display a small popup that allows you to perform various actions related to that contact.
The send email button will open a new composition window. The recent conversations button will open a new tab that displays recent conversations involving that person. The + (plus) button enables you to perform more actions, such as adding/editing that contact in the address book, creating a filter, or displaying messages from that person using a monospace font. The small icon allows you to copy that person's email address to the clipboard.
If you scroll at the bottom of the conversation area, you will see a text field. Clicking on it opens the quick reply.
Type your reply, click the send button, and Thunderbird Conversations will send the email. You can customize the list of recipients by using the edit links, or add more fields by clicking add bcc or add cc. The draft will automatically be saved if you change conversations. You can manually save or discard a draft by using the save or discard buttons. The continue using editor button will take the text you've written so far, and move it to a regular composition window, where you will be able to add attachments.
If the message has attachments, they will be displayed at the bottom of the message.
Clicking gallery view will open all image attachments in a new tab for you to see them. Clicking on a thumbnail will open the attachment in a new tab, so that you can read a text attachment, or view an image full-size for instance. Clicking open will try to open the attachment using your favorite program, and download / download all will prompt you for a folder to save the attachment(s) to.
Inside a conversation, you can perform either individual actions on a single message or global actions on the whole conversation.
The more menu at the top right corner of a message will allow you to perform operations on an individual message. The regular archive and delete operations are available. If you find out there's an operation that you can't perform with Thunderbird Conversations, just hit view using the classic reader. It will open the message in a new tab, using the classic interface, that might just have the option you're looking for.
At the bottom of the message, the reply / reply all / forward buttons allow you to reply to the message using the regular compose window. They do not use the quick reply feature discussed before.
At the top right of the conversation area, is a set of buttons that perform conversation-related actions. Just hold your mouse over a button for a few seconds and a tooltip appears with an explanation of what the button does.
Clicking the + button in a contacts tooltip will display the advanced options for that contact. From there, you can create a filter, or chose to display the messages from this sender in a monospaced font.
You can change the monospace settings in the addon's options.
Thunderbird Conversations can work with the Contacts for Thunderbird add-on if it's installed. Here are a few examples:
Thunderbird Conversations plays nicely with Bugzilla emails. It automatically displays the value of the X-Bugzilla-Who header -- the person who performed the action -- instead of the From: field (usually bugzilla-daemon@...).
Thunderbird Conversations is compatible with Lightning (it will display a notification bar if the message contains an event invitation), Enigmail (encrypted messages will be decrypted in the conversation view), BidiUI (if BidiUI is present, it will also operate on messages in the conversation view).
Thunderbird Conversations has numerous keyboard shortcuts. Most are consistent with Thunderbird's.
Warning: If the conversation has focus, pressing A archives the messages in the conversation, including those which are in other folders!
Warning: if the conversation has focus, this will delete all of the messages in the conversation, including those which are in other folders!
Here's a list of common problems with Thunderbird Conversations:
If you've ever sent an email only to realize that you've forgotten to attach a needed file, the Attachment Reminder add-on is for you. When you click the Send button, the add-on checks your message for any keywords you've defined as "signals" for including an attachment. If it finds any of the keywords, the add-on prompts you to add an attachment.
Installing Attachment Reminder
ThreadVis displays a small graphic in the header of your email that provides a visual context for the thread of the currently-selected email. Using TheadVis is a great way to track the history of an email thread.
To install ThreadVis:
After restarting Thunderbird, do the following:
In the currently selected email, you will see a graphic that looks similar to this:
Each message in the thread is represented by a dot. The oldest message in the thread is the left-most dot.
Some circles are spaced further apart than others. This provides an indication of the time that has passed since the messages have been sent or received.
Each person in the email is assigned a colour in the graphic. Each person in the email will have a coloured line under their name to indicate which colour shows their messages in the thread.
You can open each message in the thread by double clicking on one of the circles.
Signature switch is an add-on that allows you to apply different types of signatures for different purposes. For example, you can create a signature named Work with your full name, office address, and fax number; or a signature named Personal with just Cheers! as a sign-off.
Download the Signature Switch add-on by using the Add-ons Manager (Tools > Add-ons). See the chapter Using the Add-On Manager if you don't know how to download and install add-ons.
Once you've installed the Signature Switch add-on, you need to create one or more signatures to use with it. Here's how to do it.
To create a new signature:
When you add an email address in this dialog, that signature inserts automatically when you're using that account. You can also specify the signatures that you use when posting to newsgroups and mailing lists in the same way. This step is optional.
To add a signature to an email message:
Your signature appears at the bottom of your email message.
The main goal of this manual is to help you use Thunderbird to manage your email. All the authors hope that we have succeeded in doing this.
However, we know that you might need more information about a topic, that there are questions we did not answer, and that what is true today may not be true tomorrow. To help you get the additional information you need, we want to tell you about some other Thunderbird support resources. These are all freely available on the web.
Some of the best Thunderbird support resources are:
The Official Mozilla Thunderbird Support Forum is where users post queries about using, configuring or resolving problems with Thunderbird. It contains a searchable question and answer archive that you can use to research solutions.
The Official Mozilla Thunderbird Knowledge Base is a searchable collection of articles about how to install, configure, use, and troubleshoot Thunderbird.
MozillaZine is an independent, volunteer-run web site that contains information about Thunderbird and other Mozilla products like the Firefox web browser. To find answers and solutions, you can search the mozillaZine knowledge base at http://kb.mozillazine.org and the mozillaZine support forum at http://forums.mozillazine.org.
Superuser.com is a computer question and answer site that has information about many computer products, including Thunderbird. You can see what people are asking about Thunderbird at http://superuser.com/questions/tagged/thunderbird.
An effective way to use the Thunderbird support forums is to search first and ask questions later.
The general rule for help requests is that you should provide as much information as possible about your problem. This will help the support person recreate your problem and come up with a solution for you.
Here's some useful information to include in a request for help:
Here are a few pieces of information that you should never provide:
If a someone asks you for any of these things, stop what you're doing immediately and go somewhere else.
Having problems with Thunderbird? Here are a few things that you should try before looking for help elsewhere.
Clicking on Troubleshooting Information in the Help menu opens a new tab that contains plenty of information to help fix your problem. The page contains the following sections: Application Basics, Mail and News Accounts, Extensions (Add-ons), Modified preferences and Graphics.
At the top of the page are options for copying this info to your clipboard and for sending via email. You select the option to include personal information in these sections.
This section provides details of the program name and version. You can also display the installed add-ons and build configuration settings.
This section contains information about account names, connection type (IMAP, POP), authentication, and server names.
This section lists all of the add-ons to Thunderbird. You can see whether add-ons are enabled or disabled status, along with the version of the add-on.
This section provides diagnostic information.
This section provides details on the graphics chip and driver version being used on your computer.
Safe Mode is a special execution mode that you can use to troubleshoot issues in Thunderbird. In Safe Mode, you can reset some settings and disable add-ons that might be the source of the issue. By comparing Thunderbird's behavior in normal mode to its behavior in Safe Mode (with various items disabled), you may be able to diagnose issues.
For example, if you are encountering functional problems relating to parts of the client no longer working, the client not starting, distorted appearances, or degraded information, you may be suffering from Extension or Theme trouble.
To restart Thunderbird in Safe Mode, select Help > Restart and Disable Add-ons. This disables the extensions, granting you access to the client in its Default theme. You can then disable the extension/theme causing you trouble, and restart the client normally.
To exit Safe Mode, close Thunderbird and restart it.
For instructions on starting Thunderbird in Safe Mode, see the instructions on the Thunderbird Knowledge Base at http://support.mozillamessaging.com/en-US/kb/Safe+Mode.
If you are using Microsoft Windows, be aware that every update to Windows, your anti-virus software, and your firewall software might affect Thunderbird. How? These updates can change the rules that control how applications connect to the Internet. If Thunderbird suddenly stops working, be sure to check the configuration of your anti-virus and firewall software. Also, after you install or update Thunderbird, the anti-virus and firewall programs on Windows may need to be re-configured to let Thunderbird get to the Internet.
One of the most powerful and flexible features of Thunderbird is its add-ons. Thunderbird add-ons are mostly written by volunteers who may not update them according to the Thunderbird release schedule. Add-ons may stop working when you update Thunderbird or they may cause Thunderbird itself to stop working.
If you are able to run Thunderbird in Safe Mode, your problems are probably caused by an add-on. To get Thunderbird working again, disable the add-on and contact its author for support. Mozilla does not provide support for third-party add-ons.
If you are running into problems relating to email, feeds or newsgroup messages, you can try creating a new profile to see if the problems still persist before reporting any bugs. You can create a new profile using the Profile Manager and run Thunderbird with the -P command line argument. See http://kb.mozillazine.org/Profile_manager#Accessing_the_Profile_Manager for information about how to access the Profile Manager.
Select Manage Profiles, followed by Create Profile. You can migrate your settings files (emails, feeds, or newsgroup messages) one by one, checking each time to see if the problems resurface. If you do find a particular data file causing a problem, you can report the bug and attach the associated file. Be sure to remove any private information before you send the bug report.
All chapters copyright of the authors (see below). Unless otherwise stated all chapters in this manual licensed with GNU General Public License version 2This documentation is free documentation; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
This documentation is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this documentation; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA.
ABOUT THIS MANUAL
Free manuals for free software
Version 2, June 1991
Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA
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of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. By contrast, the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead.) You can apply it to your programs, too.
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In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License.
3. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it, under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following:
The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. For an executable work, complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable. However, as a special exception, the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs, unless that component itself accompanies the executable.
If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place, then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code, even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code.
4. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.
5. You are not required to accept this License, since you have not signed it. However, nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it.
6. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program), the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License.
7. If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues), conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. For example, if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program.
If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances.
It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system, which is implemented by public license practices. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice.
This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License.
8. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. In such case, this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License.
9. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.
Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version", you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation.
10. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different, write to the author to ask for permission. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes make exceptions for this. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.
11. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
12. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS